Jul 20, 2024  
2018-2019 Undergraduate Academic Calendar 
2018-2019 Undergraduate Academic Calendar [ARCHIVED CALENDAR]

Academic regulations

Information regarding a student’s academic performance including, but not limited to, information relating to grades, academic standing, academic misconduct professional unsuitability and graduation shall be communicated to students via their official UOITnet email addresses. Information sent to a student’s UOITnet account shall be deemed to have been received by the student on the day it was sent. Under no circumstance shall failure to monitor this email account constitute grounds for appeal of an academic regulation.

Selecting courses

Requirements for programs of study are listed in the faculty sections of this calendar. Students should become familiar with the program requirements and plan their programs accordingly. Academic advice is available to those who experience difficulty when selecting courses. Not all courses are offered in any one semester or academic year. Elective offerings may vary from semester to semester.

Course changes and voluntary withdrawal

The academic schedule for each Academic Year will outline predetermined dates for the following for each Semester:

  • Last day to add courses.
  • Last day to drop courses and receive a 100 per cent refund of tuition fees.
  • Last day to drop courses and receive a 50 per cent refund of tuition fees.
    • Dropping courses on or prior to this date can be done without academic consequences.
    • Dropping courses after this date, and up to the last day to drop courses, will result in a W being placed on the student’s record indicating withdrawal.
    • The W will not affect the Grade Point Average (GPA). However, a large number of W grades may affect the way an Academic Transcript is viewed by graduate schools or potential employers.
  • Last day to drop courses.
    • Withdrawal deadlines are not the same as the refund deadlines. Students should consult the university’s academic schedule when considering withdrawal.

Withdrawal from a course can have implications for a student’s academic program, student aid and awards eligibility and full-time status. A dropped course does not count toward degree requirements and cannot be used to satisfy prerequisites for further courses. In addition, the course that is dropped may not be available in the next semester or session. Students are advised to consider all course changes carefully or consult an advisor.

Students are reminded that non-attendance in a course is not equivalent to withdrawal. Students who cease to attend a course but do not formally withdraw will be academically and financially responsible for that course.

Auditing courses

Students may audit a course provided they obtain the permission of the course instructor(s). Students who are auditing a course are not permitted to write examinations or receive any form of evaluation. They must register formally as auditors with the Office of the Registrar and pay the full course fee. However, audited courses will not appear on a student’s transcript.

Letters of permission

Students wishing to take a course at another institution must apply for and receive a letter of permission from UOIT in advance of their application to the visiting institution. A letter of permission ensures that the courses to be taken at the host institution will be recognized for credit at UOIT and are applicable to the student’s program of study. For application instructions, eligibility requirements, and restrictions, students should visit uoit.ca/lop.


Some courses have prerequisites or corequisites. Where a prerequisite is specified, the prerequisite must be taken prior to the course in question. Where a corequisite is specified, the corequisite must be taken at the same time or prior to the course in question. Prerequisites and corequisites may be waived with the permission of the faculty. Any student who requests such a waiver is responsible to ensure that he/she is adequately prepared to proceed with the level of study required in the course. Inadequate preparation is not a basis for appeal of a final grade in a course for which a student requested a waiver of prerequisite or corequisite.

Full-time/part-time status

Each program has associated with it a number of credit hours that constitute a full course load. In many programs, this number is 15 per semester or 30 per academic year. Students will be considered full-time if they are taking 9 credit hours or more in a semester. Full-time status may have an impact on such things as student aid and awards eligibility, fees, income tax credits, athletic eligibility and other areas.


Final grades for all courses will be submitted to the Office of the Registrar on a letter grade scale. Credit will be granted only for those courses completed with a grade of D or better. Faculties may require higher grades in some courses to meet degree requirements. For further information regarding specific degree requirements, students should refer to the appropriate faculty website. The following descriptions outline the quality of work associated with each letter grade. Percentage-to-grade equivalencies are included as a guideline for conversion.

A failing grade of WF may be assigned if a student is administratively withdrawn for non-attendance.

Courses designated for pass/fail grading will be assigned a grade of PAS or FAL. For such courses, only failing grades will be included in the calculation of the grade point average. If a student’s grade is not available when final grades are approved at the end of a semester, special designation will be temporarily added to his/her record. If a deferred examination has been granted, a grade of DEF will be assigned. If a portion of the work required for the course is incomplete, a grade of INC may be recorded. These grades may satisfy prerequisites for further courses on a temporary basis, but not beyond the end of the subsequent semester after which these grades revert to F.

Grade Percentage Grade points Grade points description
A+ 90-100 4.3 Excellent. Strong evidence of originality and independence of thought; good organization; capacity to analyze and synthesize; superior grasp of subject matter with sound critical evaluations; evidence of extensive knowledge base; an outstanding ability to communicate.
A 85-89 4
A- 80-84 3.7
B+ 77-79 3.3 Good. Substantial knowledge of subject matter; some evidence of organization and analytic ability; a moderate degree of originality and independence of thought; reasonable understanding of relevant issues; evidence of familiarity with literature; an ability to communicate clearly and fluently.
B 73-76 3
B- 70-72 2.7
C+ 67-69 2.3 Adequate. Student is profiting from his/her university experience; an acceptable understanding of the subject matter; ability to develop solutions to simple problems in the material; some ability to organize and analyze ideas; an ability to communicate adequately.
C 60-66 2
D 50-59 1 Marginal. Some evidence that critical and analytic skills have been developed; rudimentary knowledge of the subject matter; significant weakness in the ability to communicate.
F 0-49 0 Inadequate. Little evidence of even superficial understanding of subject matter; weakness in critical and analytic skills; limited or irrelevant use of literature; failure to complete required work; an inability to communicate.

Repeating courses

Students are not allowed to repeat the same course, or its equivalent, more than two times. All instances of a course will appear on the academic transcript. Only the grade achieved on the most recent attempt will be included in the calculation of the student’s grade point average. Students who have failed a third attempt of a program required course will be dismissed from the program.

Academic standing

Academic standing is calculated and recorded on academic transcripts at the end of each semester for every full-time student. Academic standing regulations are applied to part-time students after completion of 9 credit hours.

Academic standing is determined by the semester and cumulative grade point averages and the student’s academic standing in the previous semester. The minimum cumulative grade point average required for graduation is 2.00.

Clear standing

Students are required to maintain a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.00 to remain in clear standing.


Students whose cumulative grade point average falls below 2.00 will be placed on probation. Students on probation will be required to contact an academic advisor.

Students on probation may continue their studies as long as they achieve at least a semester grade point average of 2.00. Students placed on probation remain on probation until their cumulative grade point average is 2.00 or higher.


Students will be suspended if they fail to fulfil the conditions of probation.

Following a period of at least two semesters, a suspended student may apply for readmission to the university through the Office of the Registrar. Students may be required to agree to conditions for reinstatement.


Students readmitted after a period of suspension will be readmitted on probation. Students who fail to comply with the conditions of reinstatement or whose performance would result in suspension for a second time will be permanently dismissed.

Program dismissal

Students who have been dismissed from a program may be eligible to move into another degree or major provided that they are not on suspension and are not prohibited from taking required courses pursuant to any academic regulation or university policy.

Review of academic standing

Students may request a faculty-level review of their academic standing if their academic performance was affected by significant extenuating circumstances beyond their control. Such requests must be submitted in writing to the appropriate faculty within 10 working days of the notification of the student’s academic standing. The request must include the grounds upon which the review is requested and any relevant supporting documentation. If the outcome of the faculty-level review is favourable to the student, the student’s academic standing will be adjusted appropriately and the student may be required to satisfy certain academic conditions. It is expected that the student will normally receive the faculty’s decision in writing within 10 working days of filing the request for review. 

Grade changes

After grades have been officially approved and released, any grade changes must be submitted in writing to the registrar. Grade changes may result from the submission of course work, the writing of a deferred examination, clerical errors, or an approved examination re-read. All grade changes must be approved by the course instructor and the dean or designate.

Grade reappraisals

Matters concerning term work normally fall within the authority of the instructor. If a student has a concern regarding course work, the student should make an appointment, as soon as possible, with the instructor so that any issues can be resolved quickly and informally. Students unable to comply with given deadlines must contact their instructor prior to the deadline if an extension to the deadline is requested. All term work must be submitted by the last day of classes, unless an earlier date has been specified. Instructors may grant extensions beyond their own deadlines or beyond the last day of classes up to the last day of the examination period provided that a student presents reasons of illness, etc., with appropriate documentation. Extensions beyond the last day of the examination period can only be granted by the dean of the relevant faculty.

Prior to engaging in a formal reappraisal process, students are expected to contact the instructor to discuss the grade received and to request a review of their course work. Students should be aware that a request for a formal or informal grade reappraisal may result in the original grade being raised, lowered or confirmed. 

Requesting a formal grade reappraisal

Students may make a formal request to the Office of the Registrar to have a final grade in a course reappraised.

Such requests for reappraisal must be submitted in writing and must include:

  • The specific academic grounds on which the request for reappraisal is based.
  • Any relevant supporting documentation.
  • The remedy being sought; and
  • Proof of $30.00 payment (accounting receipt).

Requests received more than 10 working days following the release of final grade reports for the relevant semester shall not be processed. Grade reappraisals of academic work for which there is no tangible record, such as an oral presentation, a performance, an internship, placement or practicum, will normally not result in a change of grade. If the instructor or reappraiser is persuaded that there is some doubt about the accuracy or fairness of the grade in such work, the only available remedy may require the student to repeat the work.

Once the above materials are received, the Office of the Registrar will contact the relevant dean who will determine that the academic grounds relied upon by the student are sufficient and, if so, will commence the reappraisal process. The dean will be responsible for ensuring that the work is reappraised by an appropriate faculty member and for ensuring anonymity of both the student and the reappraiser. Prior to commencing the reappraisal, the dean will provide the reappraiser with information regarding the nature of the assignment and the rationale for the original grade. The student’s request will be acknowledged by his or her faculty upon receipt. The dean will communicate the results of the reappraisal (including the reappraiser’s comments) in writing to the student, the course instructor and the Office of the Registrar. The student will normally be informed of such results within 20 working days of the reappraiser having received the work.

Request for consideration of grade review (non-academic grounds)

Students may submit a formal request to the Office of the Registrar for a review of a final grade if their academic performance in a course was affected by significant extenuating circumstances beyond their control. Extenuating circumstances normally involve a significant physical or psychological event that is beyond a student’s control and debilitating to his or her academic performance. Evidence of these kinds of extraordinary situations should include official documentation from an appropriate professional.

This route of reappraisal is intended to deal with those limited circumstances in which a request for deferral is not possible. A student who is aware that extenuating circumstances may affect performance will, wherever possible, seek Consideration of Missed In-term Course Work and Examinations as outlined in the procedures. Failure to do so may jeopardize the student’s reappraisal.

The formal request for review must be submitted in writing within 10 working days of the notification of the student’s final grade.

In all cases, the formal request must include:

  • Specific details concerning the extenuating circumstances on which the grade reappraisal is requested and, where applicable, official supporting documentation from the appropriate professional.
  • Any other relevant supporting documentation.
  • The remedy being sought.

The student’s request will be acknowledged by the relevant faculty upon receipt. It is expected that the student will normally be informed of the decision by the dean of the relevant faculty in writing within 20 working days of submitting the request for review.

Request for consideration for late withdrawal

Students may submit a request to the Office of the Registrar to consider a late withdrawal from a course(s) due to extenuating circumstances beyond their control (such as medical reasons, death in the family, etc.). All relevant supporting documentation must accompany the request. Such requests must be submitted in writing no later than 10 working days after the commencement of the subsequent semester (including fall, winter or summer semester) in which the student is enrolled.

Dean’s List and President’s List

Students in clear standing with a semester GPA of 3.5 to 3.79 on at least 80 per cent of a full course load at the end of a semester will receive the designation Dean’s List on their transcripts. Students in clear standing with a semester GPA of 3.8 or higher on at least 80 per cent of a full course load will receive the designation President’s List on their transcripts.

Documents and student files

Documents submitted pursuant to these regulations become the property of the university and are protected under applicable privacy legislation. Original copies of documents are the property of the university and will not be returned to the student.

Official student academic records deemed to have archival value and preserved in the university archives shall be made available to researchers authorized by the university in accordance with applicable privacy legislation.

Curriculum substitution

Students wishing to substitute one course for another in a set of program requirements may request permission to do so from the dean of the faculty or designate. Requests are referred to the appropriate Faculty Council for decision.

Academic conduct and professional suitability

Faculty members and students share an important responsibility to maintain the integrity of the teaching and learning relationship. This relationship is characterized by honesty, fairness and mutual respect for the aims and principles of the pursuit of education, as well as the intellectual property of others. Academic misconduct impedes these goals, disrupts the activities of the university community and is punishable by appropriate disciplinary action.

It is the responsibility of students to be aware of the actions that constitute academic misconduct, the procedures for launching and resolving complaints, and the penalties for commission of acts of misconduct. A lack of familiarity with the university’s policy on academic conduct and misconduct on the part of a student does not constitute a defence against its application.

Academic misconduct

Academic misconduct includes, but is not limited to:

  • Unreasonable infringement on the freedom of other members of the academic community (e.g., disrupting classes or examinations, harassing, intimidating, or threatening others);
  • Violation of health and safety regulations in a laboratory or other setting.
  • Cheating on examinations, assignments, reports, or other work used to evaluate student performance. Cheating includes, among other things, copying from another student’s work or allowing one’s own work to be copied, submitting another person’s work as one’s own, fabrication of data, consultation with an unauthorized person during an examination, use of unauthorized aids, or submitting work prepared in collaboration with other member(s) of a class, when collaborative work on a project has not been authorized by the instructor.
  • Impersonating another student or allowing oneself to be impersonated for purposes of taking examinations, or carrying out laboratory or other assignments.
  • Plagiarism, which is the act of presenting the ideas, words, or other intellectual property of another as one’s own, including images, designs, processes, computer software, digital, audio and video files, Internet resources and other works without appropriate attribution or credit. The use of other people’s work must be properly acknowledged and referenced in all written material.
  • Obtaining by improper means examination papers, tests, or similar materials; use or distribution of such materials to others.
  • Falsifying academic records, including tests and examinations, or submitting false credentials for purpose of gaining admission to a program or course, or for any other purpose.
  • Misrepresentation of facts, whether written or oral, which may have an effect on academic evaluation. This includes making fraudulent health claims, obtaining medical or other certificates under false pretences, or altering certificates for the purpose of misrepresentation.
  • Submission of work when a major portion has been previously submitted or is being submitted for another course, without the expressed permission of all instructors involved.

Professional unsuitability

Students in programs leading to professional certification must demonstrate behaviour appropriate to practice in those professions. Where a dean determines that behaviour inconsistent with the norms and expectations of the profession has been exhibited by a student, that student may be immediately withdrawn from the program by the dean or subject to one or more of the sanctions described below.

A student demonstrating professional unsuitability may be immediately suspended from any practicum, field work or similar activity at the discretion of the dean pending a final decision.


If a student is deemed to have committed academic misconduct or are alleged to have demonstrated behaviour inconsistent with professional suitability, one or more of the following disciplinary sanctions may be imposed. The severity of the sanction will be determined by the nature of the misconduct or professional unsuitability and the student’s past record of conduct. Students found guilty of successive acts of misconduct will receive increasingly severe sanctions, not limited to the following:

  • Resubmission of the piece of academic work in respect of which the misconduct was committed, for evaluation.
  • A written reprimand, warning the student that the behaviour was unacceptable and that further misconduct will lead to additional sanctions. A copy of the reprimand will be placed in the student’s file, but no notation will appear on the transcript.
  • Submission of a failing grade in an examination, test, assignment or course.
  • Disciplinary probation for the remainder of the student’s registration in his/her current program of study. A note to this effect will be placed in the student’s file, and a notation may appear on his/her transcript. Any further offence will lead to a more severe sanction.
  • Expunging of grades or revoking of degrees.
  • Restraining orders or monetary restitution where appropriate in the case of threats, harassment, or damage to property.
  • Suspension from attendance in a course, a program, a faculty, or the university, for a period not less than one term (fall or winter) and not exceeding three years as deemed appropriate. While suspended, a student may not register, and loses the right to attend lectures, write examinations, and receive payment from university sources. Courses taken elsewhere during the period of suspension are not eligible for transfer credit. Notice of suspension will be placed in the student’s file and will appear on his/her transcript. The conditions of suspension will specify the length of time such notice will remain on the student’s transcript.
  • Permanent expulsion from the university. A note to this effect will be placed in the student’s file and will remain on his/her transcript.
  • Such other sanctions as deemed appropriate.

Launching and resolving complaints

With respect to all accusations of academic misconduct or professional unsuitability, students are presumed innocent until the contrary has been established. Decisions regarding the commission of academic misconduct or professional unsuitability shall be determined using the balance of probabilities as the standard of proof. A record of all allegations of misconduct, along with details of the resolution, will be entered into the central transcript kept by the Office of the Registrar.

Faculty and staff who have reason to believe that an act of academic misconduct or professional unsuitability has been committed should report the matter promptly based on the determination of the act being a lesser or major offence.

  • Lesser academic offences include assignments and tests that are worth 25% or less of the total possible grade for the course that are first offences. In other words, if an assignment or test is worth 20% but it is a 2nd offence, then the case should be treated as a major (or more serious) academic offence.
  • Major academic offences include assignments and tests that are worth more than 25% of the final grade or is a repeat offence, or the nature of the offence is severe, or the offence is related to a Final Examination.

Students who have reason to believe that an act of academic misconduct has been committed should report the matter promptly to the instructor responsible for the course in which the act was committed.

Alleged acts of professional unsuitability should be reported to the dean or dean’s designate of the faculty in which the student is enrolled.

Dealing with lesser academic offences

In the following circumstances, the course instructor may choose to deal with allegations of academic misconduct:

  • The offence relates to a piece of academic work representing 25 per cent or less of the final grade in the course.
  • The student has committed no other academic offence before.
  • The student admits to having committed the offence.
  • The student consents to the sanction proposed by the course instructor.

In such circumstances, the sanction proposed by the course instructor will consist of resubmission of a piece of academic work, a written reprimand, or submission of a failing grade for the piece of work. The course instructor may also choose to deal with these cases personally or to refer them to the course dean or dean’s designate for action. The student may also elect to have the matter referred to the course dean or dean’s designate. Before acting, the course instructor must check with the Office of the Registrar to see whether any record of any previous academic offence(s) had been deposited in the student’s file. For a first lesser academic offence, the course instructor is responsible for notifying the student of the offence and securing the student’s written acknowledgement that they had committed the offence, that they agree to the sanction, and that they agree that no appeal may be taken from this sanction. Upon notification, the student will have five working days in which to respond to the allegation. If no response is received within the time period, the instructor will refer the matter to the course dean or dean’s designate for formal resolution. In any event, the course instructor shall notify the Office of the Registrar of the offence. This material will be placed in the student’s file for future reference but no notation will appear on the academic record. Lesser academic offences resolved by agreement between the course instructor and the student may not be appealed.

Complaints resolved by the dean or dean’s designate

If a complaint of academic misconduct cannot be resolved by a course instructor, or if the course instructor or the student refers the complaint to the course dean or dean’s designate, the dean or dean’s designate shall be responsible for addressing the complaint.

A student will not be permitted to withdraw from the course in which the offence was alleged to have been committed until the matter is resolved and sanction imposed. Once notified of an unresolved complaint relating to academic misconduct and/or professional unsuitability, the dean or dean’s designate shall notify the Office of the Registrar to put the student’s account on hold and refer the matter to an academic integrity committee comprised of the dean’s designate and two members of the academic staff to investigate the complaint and recommend a resolution. In cases where the resolution may result in the expunging of grades, the revoking of degrees, or in the student being suspended or expelled, the deans or dean’s designates of both the faculty responsible for the course in which the offence was committed and the faculty in which the student is enrolled must consult and agree on the sanctions coming from the offence. If the deans or dean’s designates cannot agree on the sanctions, the final resolution will rest with the Provost or Provost’s designate. Once a final resolution has been determined, the course dean or dean’s designate will notify the parties and the Office of the Registrar in writing.

Dealing with professional unsuitability

All allegations of professional unsuitability must be addressed by the student’s home dean or dean’s designate.

Procedures for formal resolution

The dean or dean’s designate must inform the student, in writing, of the allegations, the possible sanctions and a copy of the pertinent policy statement. The student will be given five working days to prepare a response. The academic integrity committee will meet with the student to hear the response. The student is entitled to be accompanied by up to two advisors at this meeting, provided 48 hours advance written notice is given of the identity of the advisors.

The academic integrity committee shall conduct an investigation of the allegations and response, and make its recommendation to the dean or dean’s designate within 10 further working days. The dean or dean’s designate will notify the parties and the Office of the Registrar of the decision in writing.

Transcript notations and appeal process

Transcript notations for academic misconduct will include the following range of notations: grade of F assigned for [course number] for academic misconduct; suspended for academic misconduct for [dates of suspension]; suspended for professional unsuitability; and permanently expelled for academic misconduct. Transcript notations will normally be recorded on the academic transcript for a minimum of two years.

A student may apply to the academic appeals committee to have the notice of suspension and/or transcript notation expunged from his/her academic record after a minimum of two years from the last offence. If the appeal is granted, the Office of the Registrar will be notified to remove the notation.

Transcript notations for students who are suspended for professional unsuitability or permanently expelled for academic misconduct will remain on their academic record and cannot be appealed.

Academic accommodation for students with disabilities

Students with disabilities may request to be considered for formal academic accommodation in accordance with the Ontario Human Rights Code. Students seeking accommodation can find more information about Student Accessibility Services at uoit.ca.

Residency requirements

At least half of a student’s courses must be from among UOIT course offerings in order to meet the residency requirements for graduation. In exceptional circumstances, with sufficient advance notice, or in the case of special agreements with other universities, a dean may reduce this requirement to 25 per cent. Such cases are reported to Academic Council for information.

Conferral of degrees

Degrees will be deemed conferred at the time of Academic Council approval, and notation of the degrees awarded will be entered on the students’ records. All students who are awarded a degree are eligible to attend the session of convocation that immediately follows the date of conferral.

Graduation with distinction

At the time of graduation, students who have achieved a cumulative GPA of 3.50 to 3.79 will have the words “with distinction” added to the degree parchment and to the degree notation on the transcript. Students who achieve a cumulative GPA of 3.80 or higher will have the words “with highest distinction” added to the degree parchment and to the degree notation on the transcript.

Graduation notwithstanding a deficiency

In exceptional circumstances, a dean may recommend to Academic Council that a student receive a degree or other qualification notwithstanding the fact that the student has not completed all normal academic requirements.

Time limits

Generally, students must complete a degree program within a number of years equal to twice the length of time it would take to complete the program on a full load basis. Students unable to complete the degree within the time limit must apply for an extension of the degree program to ensure continued eligibility to graduate. Applications for extension will be considered at the discretion of the dean and will normally be granted only in exceptional circumstances. If an extension is not granted, a student will be dismissed.

Second degrees

Students holding a UOIT degree may pursue a second degree providing there is no substantial overlap in degree requirements. A Second Degree requires the completion of all required courses for both degree programs. The maximum advanced standing that can be awarded towards a second degree is 50 percent of the credits from the first degree. No more than 12 credit hours of the second degree can be taken at another institution. 

Examination and grading policy

This policy provides a framework to guide the effective administration and scheduling of in-term course work and examinations and the submission and release of final grades. 

Appeals to the Academic Appeals Committee

Decisions eligible for appeal

An exhaustive list of formal decisions eligible for appeal to the Academic Appeals Committee is set out below. All other decisions shall be deemed final.

Process for submitting an appeal

Appeals submitted to the Academic Appeals Committee must be submitted within 10 working days of the original faculty-level decision and must contain:

  • The specific decision which is being appealed;
  • The form of redress requested;
  • The specific grounds on which the appeal is made;
  • A summary of the evidence in support of these grounds;
  • The complete text of the decision being appealed; and
  • The text of the relevant procedural regulations (if any) allegedly violated or otherwise deemed applicable to the case.

Appeals to the Academic Appeals Committee will be permitted only on the grounds of:

  • New evidence, i.e., evidence relevant to the decision made at the faculty level, but through no fault of the appellant not presented at that level. Generally speaking, events or performance subsequent to the faculty-level decision are not to be construed as new evidence; or
  • Evidence of procedural irregularity in the original consideration of the case.

Status during an appeal

Under normal circumstances, disciplinary penalties will not be enforced before an appeal is decided, nor will official transcripts be issued. In cases where continued attendance by the student would have a detrimental effect on the student or others (including, but not limited to circumstances where issues of safety and security to the individuals or property are involved), the dean of the relevant faculty may determine that the penalty imposed by the faculty will stay in effect until the completion of the appeal proceedings. If the appeal is granted, formal registration will be reinstated or the matter remitted back to the dean or provost for reconsideration as appropriate.